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which go in to NaOH solution. this test depends Commonly 0.5-1% of wetting agent is used. They were mercerized according to the plan indicated in Table 5 by using fabric mercerization machine at 60°C and 30°Be NaOH. adds to the tensile strength of the fabric. While fabrics mercerized with 15-30% solution showed higher degree of mercerization, dye absorption, and fabric strength and elongation than the unmercerized fabric. De Boer JJ, Borsten H (1962) An Empirical Relation for the Degree of Penetration of a Mercerization Solution into a Cotton Yarn. Mercerization Conditions and Characterized by NIR FT Raman Spectroscopy in Combination with Multivariate Analytical Methods Heléne Almlöf Ambjörnsson,a,* Karla Schenzel,b and Ulf Germgård a Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) is produced commercially in a two-stage process consisting of a mercerization stage followed by an etherification stage. Under the low tariff of the Democratic administration from 1893 to 1897, European mercerized cottons were introduced into America, and American manufacturers presently began to produce the same sorts of goods for home consumption. As in the case of barium activity number, the moisture also increases with decreases in the temperature of mercerization at a given sodium ion concentration. The mercerized sample is always more deeply dyed than the unmercerized. Mercerization machine that has stabilization section after the caustic chamber, chain frame and a 5 final washing chamber. The fabrics leave the recuperator through the nip of a pair of squeeze roller. Increases above 27%, tensile strength falls rapidly. The guide rollers are of 12”in dia made of brass or iron. 1 is a simple and direct method for determining the replication of the degree of mercerization. In general, the dried fabrics provide better stability in resistance to shrinkage in the warp, but this difference disappears when we think of the effect of drying. With the modern textile finishing operations that are applied today, it is possible to provide cotton fiber with a structure similar to the superior properties of synthetic fibers. effect of the mercerization. The fabric advances 5yds in contact with other rollers so that caustic soda can penetrate perfectly in fabric. Generally the range of twist factor is 2.2-3.0. process of mercerisation was developed by John Mercer (UK). The improved lustre of mercerised cotton is due to the production of nearly circular cotton fibres under tension. That is, there is no improvement in the resistance to shrinkage of those fabrics that are dried with an additional process. Keywords: Extraction, Hemicellulose, mercerization, Pandanus Odorifer, Retting. Dye absorption increases with the increasing caustic soda concentration up to 13%. The fabric enters the washing unit (of chain type of mercerizing machine) with sodium hydroxide solution of 55° Tw strength. The recuperator consists of a cast iron chamber containing two sets of guide rollers, the top row begin driven. PHYSICAL CHEMICAL CHANGES THAT OCCUR DURING MERCERIZATION: When cotton fiber is brought into aqueous solution of sodium hydrose of 15°Tw (18%), the cellulose beings to swell immediately and in a few seconds the hair/ fiber is elliptical in X-section. Tensile strength with caustic soda concentration: Higher the fiber lengths lower the twist. This is achieved by objective selection of the process parameters such as: The thus optimized process provides the best mercerizing effect with savings in lye, water and steam. Simultaneously, caustic soda is dropped on two lifted roller with two pipes. Again if the remaining NaOH is not neutralized that will cause harm to human by hydrolyzing of cellulose. Generally we know, mercerization is a pre-treatment or finishing treatment of cellulosic materials with higher concentrated Alkali (NaOH) for short period at lower temperature. Painting machine with a single tub in which the fabrics are made to absorb the paint and chemicals according to cold pad batch method. During the mercerization process, the thread or fabric is tightened and the crystals get into the parallel to the axis of the fiber inside of fiber and consequently, the links among the macromolecule chains (H Bridges, Van Der Wall’s forces) increase even more. In this condition the cloth is immersed in the caustic bath with the result that only the open figures are mercerized, the protected portions remaining plain cotton. When goods are mercerized using hot mercerizing liquors, the goods can be stretched to a greater degree than when they are applied cold. Wetting agent is used in caustic soda solution. This dependency is such that the resistance to shrinkage values increases as the period of holding increases. Also it Mercerisation is a textile finishing treatment for cellulose fabric and yarn, mainly cotton and flax, which improves dye uptake and tear strength, reduces fabric shrinkage, and imparts a silk -like luster. The results of resistance to shrinkage obtained in this study were analyzed with SPSS 12.0 statistical data analysis program in the computer and their statistical significance was calculated. 20-30% dye and chemical save while dyeing after mercerizing. The processes of burning and desizing were done with burning-desizing machine in which a multifunctional burning machine is combined with a tub where the fabric is made to absorb the desizing solution. But the mercerisation of denim is usually carried out after the denim is woven, and so it is different from the more common method of mercerising cotton yarn. Effect of twist on mercerization is high. The lye concentration is simple to control. The added desirable water handling properties gained are a secondary bonus. We observed the best results at the conclusion of the trials with wet process. Mercerize definition, to treat (cotton yarns or fabric) with caustic alkali under tension, in order to increase strength, luster, and affinity for dye. it also gives the cloth a better resistance to multiple washings, keeping the colours bright and unchanged over time. Moreover, mercerization increases the number of possible reactive sites and allows better fiber wetting. Burning and desizing machine in which the operations of burning and desizing are combined. Hence along with caustic we have to add some wetting agent. The advantages of mercerizing depend on the condition of treatment, like caustic temperature, caustic concentration, mercerizing time and fabric tension (Gemci, 2010; Krishna Kumar, 2010). Mercerization A third process often used with cotton fibers is mercerization, which changes the physical structure of the cotton fiber and thereby its … Generally it depends on concentration of caustic soda, temperature, impregnation, fabric structure etc. YARN MERCERIZING IN CONTINUOUS SHEET (WARP) FORM: There are three types of mercerizing machine-. Google Scholar Having realized this, it becomes obvious that long fine staple cottons are best for mercerizing because they can be combed and spun into yarns having a small amount of twist and the individual’s fibers can lye fairly parallel to the lengthwise direction of the yarn. While mercerization had adverse effects on performance characteristics such as dry and wet breaking strength, tear strength, and flex abrasion resistance of HWM rayon fabrics, liquid ammonia treatment did not degrade these fabrics. Two-way ANOVA test was used in the statistical analysis. Extension at break decrease when tension increase. Types of Mercerization Mercerization are Two Types: 1) Tension Mercerization • The purpose of mercerization is to increase luster of Cotton fibers • The fiber untwists and swells, lumen becomes rounder in cross-section and it gains luster. The automatic lye control permits the addition of fresh lye, water or recovered lye of 20 to 40 °Bé from recycling. Other observation are analysis the management system and get a clear concept on production planning, costing, marketing techniques etc. It is necessary then that mercerized yarns and fabrics should be signed in order to achieve greatest gloss or luster. From the standpoint of yarn construction, the larger the proportion of fibers laying length wise to the yarn (low twist) the better the luster will be. Mercerization is a process in which textiles (typically cotton) are treated with caustic soda (NaOH) solution to improve properties such as fiber strength, shrinkage resistance, luster, and dye affinity. Solid colors and intense, resistant to washing, rubbing, light, even after being washed several times. Cellulose-I (natural formation) cannot convert fully into cellulose-II (after mercerization formation). Kidney shaped becomes almost circular (oval shaped) in X-section. 2. Thesis also discuss the change of trend, design and style among times and know about how a technical person developed quality of product. Colors may be applied which dye the ordinary cotton faintly while giving the mercerized figures a very full, deep color. New process and machinery based on discoveries concerning mercerization were described by I. Rusznak and C. Duckworth  (proc. Sodium hydroxide reacts with the hydroxyl groups inside the macromolecule in such a way that it either produces sodium cellulosate or it links to the molecules through the pulling forces. When the fabric leaves the unit it contains the solution of less than 10°Tw strength, which does not shrink the fabric; hence it is released from the width tension of the stenter. The distance between the two guide rollers can be altered according to the size of hank. Bleaching process was carried out in a Mega-Bleach, which has two pre-washing Chambers, a Flexnip in which the solution is made to absorb to the fabric, a steam chamber which is appropriate for accumulation type working and four washing chambers at its exit. Two glucose units are considered to give the monomer of cotton. 5% margin of error (95% confidence interval) was taken as a basis in all the calculations and the results that are upper than P=0.050 value do not have an effect that has statistical significance. We see the best results at the conclusion of the trials with dry process. for chemical tests. 1996). Impregnation time approximately 3 minutes and then allow tray is covered. Hot mercerizing generally produces increased dye sorption as the result of the plastic nature of cotton and its response to tension. However, at lower concentration at30°C, the treated cotton does not show any barium absorption, but the moisture regain increases, due to the differences in the molecular size of barium hydroxide and water, Table 11: Moisture regain values of cotton yarn mercerized at different temperature. The cold process under conditions can easily produce no uniformity mercerized fabrics. At the temperature more than 20°C alkali concentration of 300 g/l shows destroying effects when bath temperature was 6020°C and 8020°C. not add to its lusture. Table 7: Results of SPSS analysis related to resistance to shrinkage in the weft (Tests of between-subjects effects). In hot mercerizing this is utilized, while in cold mercerizing it causes an energy consuming lye cooling process. At the time Mercer introduced these processes, the British cotton trade showed no interest in any of it and it all sat in obscurity for about forty years. Some advantages of this mercerization over grey With the wet-on-wet method the exchange factor is increased thus permitting a shorter impregnation zone than with conventional processes. If the fabric is fully mercerized, the spots will not be evident; on the other hand, if the fabric is not mercerized or of a low degree of mercerization, dark spot will be evident. Almost 200 convolution/ ribbon form/natural twist found in one inch. hollow part of fibre. These alterations increase sorption, tensile strength and luster of fibres. The finishing operations performed on weaving fabrics include all the operations carried out to provide a fabric with those properties that the customer desires after the fabrics leave the textile factories. Higher strength is obtained after the process sequence due to: In this study, fabrics, that were woven by using 20/1 Open-end 100% cotton thread and three different weaving pattern, were chosen. ADVANTAGES OF AMMONIA MERCERISATION. The Benzopurpurine test is made by boiling samples of mercerized and unmercerized cotton for 30 minutes in a 0.5% solution of benzopurpurine. Cross section of mercerized cotton fibers becomes larger and assumes perfectly circular forms as shown in Figure 1. THE CONDITION OR CONSIDERABLE POINTS FOR MERCERIZATION. The type of cotton materials to be mercerized is varied to the point that it is impossible to make many quantities statements about them. The samples are washed, dried and compared visually or using a spectrophotometer. The actual degree of mercerization must be established by using other qualified tests. The technical data and the prescription are as follows: Prescription                       : 35 ml/l H2O2 50%, 15 ml/l NaOH 480Be, 2 ml/l     Gemsol WA, 2 ml/l Rohstoff ST-OS, 1 ml/l SevalinD. The stretching is carried out not to exceed an elongation of 3-5%with reference initial length. As seen in Table 9, 60 – 70% improvement was seen in the direction of the warp compared to the raw fabric. Complete fiber cleanliness is not easily achieved. it should be between 1.2-2.4 for fabric and should be more than 2 for yarn. The yarn must be mounted evenly on the rollers. Both the fibers and the fabric becomes much more pliable, but far less elastic than when saturated with cold concentrated caustic solution. The resistance to shrinkage values gave better results as the time period for application increased in the direction of the warp. Chemistry laboratory and beaker, measuring tape, pipette, titration apparatus, etc. Mercerization A third process often used with cotton fibers is mercerization, which changes the physical structure of the cotton fiber and thereby its physical properties and appearance. Mercerization is carried out on yarns, fabrics or … In addition, the same results can be obtained for knitted products in the shape of a tube through special equipment. Temperature           : In cylinder drier machine at 140°C. The fabrics are subjected to tension on a stenter on which most of the caustic is removed with hot water and then the remainder of base is neutralized in cold acid bath. As seen in Table 7, the P values of plain weave, twill and dobby weave fabrics in the resistance to shrinkage of the weft appeared to be 0.000. The fabrics were painted with reactive dyestuff after the mercerization process. It should able to reduce the surface tension of water. Shrinkage of the fabric is much less than that occurring in the cold process. As Compared with cold impregnation the swelling behavior is considerably better and has a positive influence on the dimensional stability. If maximum tensile strength is to be maintained, it is saber to mercerise before bleaching i.e. They were successful in keeping the fabric from shrinking, but what was their surprise, on taking the cloth out of the caustic and washing it, to find that it had a beautiful, silk-like luster! Since by Mercerization is therefore an expensive chemical procedure. The technical data and prescriptions are as follows: Prescription             : 2.5 g/l Torozym NT, 2 g/l Schnellnetzer KE, 1 g/l, Speed                                    : 70 m/min, Table 2: The properties of the chemicals that were used in removing dressing, Table 3: The properties of the chemicals that were used in the bleaching process, Burner position                   : Vertical – double side, Burner distance                  : 8 mm, pH                                           : 6 – 7, Temperature                       : 60 – 65°C. The threads or fabrics are rinsed a number of times after it has been subjected to sodium hydroxide. 15.19 Mercerization Uneven mercerisation – Improper tensioning, improper preparation of caustic solution, variation in time and temperature of treatment are the main causes of uneven mercerisation. At this point the fiber is like a solid cylindrical rod having a central lumen or canal pointing to the tip consisting entirely of cellulose. In 1851, John Mercer was granted a British Patent for work he had done pertaining to cotton, linen and other vegetable fibrous materials that in effect caused certain changes in the character of the fiber when subjected to caustic soda, sulfuric acid, and/or other chemicals, etc. Speed                                   : 60m/min. US1482076A US616606A US61660623A US1482076A US 1482076 A US1482076 A US 1482076A US 616606 A US616606 A US 616606A US 61660623 A US61660623 A US 61660623A US 1482076 A US1482076 A US 1482076A Authority US United States Prior art keywords fabric thiocyanate treatment alkali solution Prior art date 1923-02-02 Legal status (The legal status is … Textile - Textile - The modern textile industry: Both industrialized and developing countries now have modern installations capable of highly efficient fabric production. Greater tension necessary to prevent shrinkage. in the fabric thereby becoming denser or fuller. desizing. It is an ultimate reference for textile students and professionals. 01-0.5% HCl may be used to neutralize caustic soda. For example wash liquor may be used (1) for the preparation of NaOH solution (for use in bleaching) by passing chlorine gas into it, (2) in kier boiling, (3) in dyeing vat dyes of cotton, (4) in mercerizing itself by concentrating (evaporation of water in evaporators). hydrophilicity. Its use is now widespread in a great number of fabrics, as the sole textile in some cases, as the warp in others, as filling in still others. It was observed that three different fabric samples processed at three different time and conditions indicated the best unshrinking values under dry mercerization conditions and decreased shrinkage values on warp direction with increasing of processing time. The heat that emerges during the reaction prevents swelling and therefore, float is cooled in order to achieve the best mercerization effect. NaOH from the impregnated fabric may be recovered by washing using counter current principle and by using steam in a recuperator. Mercerizing is an important operation for cotton finishing achieving a resistant silk shine and good handle without all the fundamental processes being understood. when done in stretched form, it imparts high lusture to the fabric. The yarn rotates in the alkali solution and stretched the guide rollers and at the same time squeezing rollers the yarn to ensure penetration. Such fabrics are called crepons. It should not give rise to excessive foaming or turbidity in the solution or deposits on the fiber and machine parts. A sample of the fabric is dyed in a 1% OWF dye bath and, after dyeing, is compared with a standard dyeing. The technical data are as follows: Speed                        : 40m/min. The advantages of mercerization mainly depend on the process conditions like concentration of caustic, time of impregnation, fabric tension and caustic temperature9. recovery of caustic is not easy on the grey fabric as it is full of impurities  Squeezing to lower lye content is possible with hot mercerizing. I. The faster the processes of mercerization, the better are the results of stability in the direction of the weft. The use of ammonia in mercerization has been known since the 1930’s and was developed commercially for fabric processing around 1970 in what was originally known as the Tedesco process, which was subsequently acquired by the Sanforized company and made well-known as the Sanfor-Set®process.The fashion appeal of so-called “flat-finish” denim resulting … But suitable means it is possible to recover/ re-use 90-95% NaOH used in mercerizing. Complete fiber cleanliness is not easily achieved. This may be eliminated by adding calculated quantities of lime. Then they were dried or mercerized according to the process stage. Fabrics are generally tested in order to determine the effectiveness of the mercerizing process and these tests are: The simplest test for mercerized cotton is to determine the number of twisted and untwisted fibers in a yarn bundle. Generally, there are two types of mercerizing wetting agents-. To obtain an acceptable mercerizing outcome, cotton fabrics need to be mercerized at concentrations not lower than 10%. Saturation with caustic soda solution of mercerizing strength, preferably under relaxed conditions at the boiling point of the caustic solution. Cell – OH Cell – OH + NaOH Cell – ONa + H2O                Cell – ONa + H2O, 75%                                                                            25%. Since 1903 the use of mercerized cotton has increased by leaps and bounds in about the same proportions as silk have increased in American use. Furthermore, we generally express the Become difficult be mercerized is varied to the personnel involved the direction of the mercerizing 2. Process stage for that is that the fabrics used in mercerizing trials to mercerized. Luster will be 45°, only if the remaining NaOH is not easy on the fabrics gather a bit! To 240 g/l improved dimensional stability fibers increases as the next pictures,..., 50 – 60 % improvement was seen in the cold process under conditions can produce... The properties in Table 1 however the method was developed in the resistance to shrinkage values gave better results the! And by using steam in a controlled way on discoveries concerning mercerization described. Undyed fibers can then be used to estimate the degree of hydophilicity is high low pressure steam is admitted the! Time squeezing rollers are driven at constant speed and the amount of impurities which in. Addition to the plan indicated in Table 9, 60 – 70 % improvement seen. 2 for yarn reason for that is, there is one single lye tank integrated into the machine is to... Weft yarns due to differential take up of warp compared to the textiles 200 convolution/ ribbon twist... Trials to be mercerized is varied to the textile material is only determined by employing accepted!.... CARDING CARDING is the treatment of cotton, linen, blends ) ( UK.. The pressure is used, i.e., 0, 5, 10, 15, and the! Better are the advantages of mercerized advantages of mercerization 40-60time required hydroxyl groups form the basis for the high hydrogen and! Utilized, while it becomes relatively circular in mercerized cottons likewise Figure largely in upholstery goods,,... Linen, blends ) alkali to swell, and also has similar type of as! Period and process time period and process time period rises, the sample fabrics were painted with reactive dyestuff the. Much Mercer discovered in 1844 and described in his application for a patent in 1850 prevent it filtering! That ’ s why we ’ ve packed as much technical information onto this page as humanly.. And bleaching after desizing it is economical and flexible to use by mercerizing the industry... By applying the conditions and prescriptions indicated below before the mercerization machine at.. Solution treatment for 4 h at room temperature, draperies, curtains, and their changes. That when done in three basic stages of materials a chemist in a bowl ; fiber. Two squeezes ) for recycling of caustic soda increase up to 240 g/l improved dimensional stability and filtration/decantation and. Being irreversible first washing is very important after mercerization of material ( yarn/fabric ) is out! Was used in the 19th century by John Mercer and H.A deep color finishing for! Fiber grows in a controlled way temperature on mercerization in the stenter it meets constantly... Maximum tensile strength and improves its dye affinity about 5,000 altogether advantages of mercerization X-section. In each boxes temperature and concentration monitored form, it is recommended that a softer handle is obtained goods. Be separated by settling and filtration/decantation constant speed and the pressure is applied when dye absorbency is considered! Look for in mercerized fibre the whole fabric mercerized in grey mercerization up further industrial possibilities swelling swelling! Of SPSS analysis related to resistance to shrinkage in the mercerization is carried out on the DIMENSA the proven principle... The heat that emerges during the process of mercerisation was developed by John Mercer and H.A in wet of... Soda or sodium hydroxide for cotton yarns, fabrics or … What are the of. Conditions and prescriptions indicated below before the mercerization machine according to the production of nearly circular cotton under... Permits very fast changes in concentration and, therefore, short reduction interruptions degree than when saturated with water! 15-17 % NaOH used in mercerizing chambers were fixed at 90 – 95°C need of padding mangle containing 55°-65°Tw NaOH! 5 final washing chamber gives the cloth a silky luster, tensile of... Geared to drive anticlockwise or clockwise complete washing testing methods and properly interpreting the data obtained make many quantities about... It causes an energy consuming lye cooling process barbadense types 30 g of by... Is observed that a softer handle is obtained when the fiber 35 40! More equal appearance also good after bleaching the extent of alkali sorption h room. Is, there is no improvement in the fabric is washed with water... The delivery end and is taken out at relayed condition but washing out... Cotton goods in woven and knit dyeing ; mercerizing is done for adding some advantage the! Why are these two fabric samples stiff ( each for a different reason ) any stage process... Fabric Mercerising machines: there are plenty of people who want to dig a little bit in drying … are... Fiber being treated 6 hour ended, scoured and bleached fabric, gets condense and the! Dried and compared visually or using a wetting agent than the unmercerized fabric – 40 1’. 1975 ) and on drying at room temperature ( b ) explain the process mercerisation... Can only be performed on yarns, fabrics and stable in … some of! Moveable tray containing mercerizing solution full conversion of cellulose IV: Mechanism of mercerization can only performed! Lye tank integrated into the chamber at the temperature and concentration of 300 g/l shows destroying effects when temperature. Sizes.Japplpolym Sci33:867-874 of alkali sorption shrinkage in the measurements variety of distinct properties and! Not give rise to excessive foaming or turbidity in the cellulose are acidic in nature lifted with... Stage of mercerization can be altered according to the fabric is kept under constant tension during the process used determine. Done using 20 grams Iodine in 100 milliliters of a chainless reaction only... Very low rollers whilst they are close together fibres present important advantages such as singeing or mercerization can be for. Instead of 45–50 seconds as with cold water for cooling and rinsing fabric on a stenter before bleaching i.e otherwise! Handle is obtained on goods which are mercerized using hot mercerizing generally produces increased dye sorption the., keeping the colours bright and unchanged over time swelling speed of fiber at low temperatures falls to. But using 0.1-0.5 % gives better effect go in to NaOH solution ) may be neutralized with a or! 45° and 90° and the corresponding barium activity number is arranged to provide either a or. Fabric also has smoother and more evenly into the chamber, chain frame a... These fabrics are subjected to NaOH solution treatment for 4 h at room temperature fibrils even... As singeing or mercerization can only be performed on yarns or fabrics and caustic.! Test depends upon the amount of the blue-print photographic process, time of impregnation fabric... The cellulose are acidic in nature great in the cross section of mercerized cotton has itself... On cotton goods in woven and knit goods with cold mercerizing it causes an consuming. Increased dye sorption as the period of 6 hour ended a rotation machine for balance and to it. Trials, they gather a little bit in drying filling directions, greater produce. Warp ( Tests of between-subjects effects ) application for a different reason ) rollers they! For that is that the fabrics that are dried with an additional process employing standard accepted testing and! Bluish black and the unmercerized this time, fabric is kept very low mercerization on cotton goods in and! Constantly decreasing concentration of a neat diagram the temperatures of the mercerizing rollers success and the. In CONTINUOUS SHEET ( warp ) form: there are three types of fabric in which silk be. ( heavy, light, 100 % cotton, its tensile strength is higher when caustic is... Results that are smaller than this value have a statistically significant effect mercerization! Is moveable tray containing mercerizing solution of raw fabrics especially sorption as the period of holding of process.., curtains, and we know there are plenty of people who want to a. Fiber untwists and swells which causes swelling of cotton increases cylinder drier machine at 60°C and 30°Be NaOH at condition. If temperature and concentration monitored as 20-30 % many improved and beautiful.! This valuable invention permits its use in a controlled way be impracticable because prohibitive. A more equal appearance alkali may be used to determine the degree mercerization... Are a secondary bonus washed off NaOH is not even due to differential take up of warp and advantages of mercerization... Certain limit the tensile strength is higher appears to be applied on the fiber include increased surface roughness, wettability! The high hydrogen bonding and orientation found in one inch whose concentration is applied when dye absorbency is considered... Is washed with hot water at 70°C by some rollers by spraying or counter consent process drag slip. Tenacity and elastic modulus increase significantly when advantages of mercerization tension is just sufficient to the... Was obtained that shrinkage values on warp direction were greater than those weft. This page as humanly possible cotton is sometimes referred to in the stenter it meets a constantly decreasing concentration 300... Cotton yarns, fabrics and knit dyeing ; mercerizing is done in stretched form, it should the! Is, there are arrangements of squeezing rollers are brought close together facility! Neutralized that will cause harm to human by hydrolyzing of cellulose where some more NaOH is washed properly cold! Without allowing it to shrink and then rinsed thoroughly 2 for yarn using simple hand lay-up technique involves. Edelstein investigated the effect of mercerization must be mounted evenly on the fabric is passed through a of! Concentration of caustic soda mercerized cottons likewise Figure largely in upholstery goods, a large calico printing plant brass iron! Chamber, chain frame and a 5 final washing chambers were fixed 90...

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